As the fourth largest energy source in the world after coal, oil and natural gas, the development and utilization of biomass energy is nothing new at home and abroad. Looking at the domestic biomass power generation, it still stays at the stage of demonstration projects, and it has not formed large-scale and rational utilization. The related self-operated enterprises have not yet found a profit model. As a renewable energy source that humans have used since ancient times, they have now flourished. There are several barriers that need to be crossed in the new energy field in China.
Raw material collection is difficult to restrict the scale of development
It is not difficult to see from the â€œ12th Five-Year Planâ€ new energy plan in China that compared with new energy sources such as hydropower and wind power, the input of bio-energy is slightly thin. According to statistics, bioenergy accounts for only 13% of all disposable energy sources worldwide. The development of bioenergy has been tepid.
"The reason why biomass energy cannot develop in China for a long time is that raw material collection is difficult to be the first obstacle." According to Gao Feng, Secretary-General of the China Urban Economy and Culture Research Association, China has abundant biomass energy resources. According to estimates, our theoretical biomass The energy resources are about 5 billion tons of standard coal, which is about 4 times the current total energy consumption in China. However, the distribution of raw materials for biomass in China is not concentrated, and it is difficult to collect most of the crop stalks that make up the majority of biomass raw materials. If it is purchased from farmers, it will easily increase the collection cost.
According to the Jiangsu Provincial Electric Power Industry Association, 13 biomass power plants have been completed and put into operation in Jiangsu Province, and there has been a loss for every family. In addition, biomass power plants have to collect all the energy that they can burn because they â€œfill their stomachsâ€. They also collect bark from the other provinces, waste from wood processing plants, rice husks from grain and oil processing plants, and even drugs from pharmaceutical companies. Slag.
Why is it so difficult to collect raw materials? Most people attribute the reason to the low purchase price. Recently, a reporter of â€œChina Power Newsâ€ interviewed Wang Shuhua, an overseas sales manager of the Sheep Energy Bio-Equipment Company. He calculated such an account for the reporter. Take corn stalks as an example, the power plant pays 200-260 yuan per ton, and the acquisition station Only about 100 yuan acquisition. One farmer's 8 acres of corn can produce more than 3 tons of straw, sent to the power plant can sell six or seven hundred yuan, while the point of access to the nearest point can only sell more than 300 yuan. Deducting oil and freight, not counting the time spent on labor and time, made little money, so farmers prefer to burn off and do fertilizer.
In view of these circumstances, at the end of May this year, the National Development and Reform Commission, together with the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Agriculture, issued the "Notice on Strengthening Comprehensive Utilization of Crop Straw and Prohibition of Burning." The notice pointed out that the government will â€œincrease the subsidies for harvesting crops and returning straw to farms to collect integrated agricultural machineryâ€ and â€œstudy the establishment of subsidies for straw returning or bale collectionâ€. According to expert analysis, this will increase the enthusiasm of farmers to properly dispose of straw, which will help biomass energy companies solve the existing problem of raw material guarantees and make straw collection routine and large-scale.
The "Before subsidy after construction" model brings drawbacks
For a long time, measures aiming at biomass energy projects, "pre-subsidy and post-construction", are likely to bring drawbacks. Experts stated that not only there are certain defects in the subsidy method, but the entire mechanism lacks the participation of energy authorities and technical departments. How the system is more conducive to supervision, fairer and more open, remains to be further improved.
At present, 80% of China's biomass energy projects rely on state subsidies. Each province has no less than 50 projects, with an average investment of nearly 2 million yuan per project country. With such a large investment, our country's subsidy policy is to invest money in construction first, and after the project is completed, it will be checked and accepted. However, few procedures such as later-stage maintenance, supervision, etc. are involved. In this way, it is very easy for enterprises to obtain state subsidies through the construction of biomass energy projects, but after they are completed, they rely on their main operations to earn money. Whether profitable or not results in the waste of special funds. At present, apart from some state-owned enterprises that have abundant funds and excellent channels, there are very few companies that are truly profitable through the biomass energy business.
In addition, China's financial subsidies still have a certain threshold of entry. The Ministry of Finance stipulates that the registered capital of enterprises must be more than 10 million yuan, and the amount of straw consumed every year must be 10,000 tons or more. Only then can they receive subsidies of 140 yuan/ton. This is undoubtedly a difficult barrier for SMEs.
The late government subsidy supervision is not in place, which is likely to cause companies to be reluctant to spend more on R&D and the introduction of advanced equipment. China's agricultural and forestry biomass materials are complex and diverse, and their quality varies greatly. Therefore, a set of stable and reliable combustion equipment is needed to adapt to China's complex and diverse fuels.
Some experts said that in addition to efforts to establish a new fuel purchase model for the development and utilization of biomass energy in China, the government should establish a more effective subsidy mechanism and learn from the experience of successful countries. Just as Heinz Kopetz, chairman of the World Association for Biomass and Energy, hopes, he called on the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Renewable Energy Agency, the World Biomass Association and other international organizations to collect examples of successful biomass energy policies. In this way, policy makers can learn from the experiences of other countries and each country can accelerate the transition to a more sustainable social system.
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