Expert: Pay attention to soil cultivation and ensure the quality of spring sowing


As the saying goes: "There is money to buy seeds, no money to buy seedlings." It is very important to ensure the quality of crops sowing. For the evaluation of seeding quality, indicators such as emergence rate, Miaoqi and Miaozhuang are generally used. In high-yield and super-high-yield cultivation systems, “planting good” is the prerequisite and basic guarantee for success. Because of this, in recent years, the agricultural technology community has put forward the concept of high-yield cultivation of “seven-point and three-point management”, which shows the importance and key role of “species”. The seeds are planted in the soil and grow longer than the soil. The soil is a hotbed for seed germination and seedling growth. How to use the necessary farmland cultivation measures to sort the farmland soil to be sown into a hotbed? This is exactly what this article emphasizes. However, in recent years, due to the misunderstanding of excessive “protective tillage” and the strain of busy labor in the spring sowing season, the relaxation and standard of soil tillage before sowing have been reduced, resulting in poor seeding quality in some areas and affecting the realization of high-yield targets.

The land preparation before planting is the soil cultivation measure. The spring ploughing is mainly topsoil cultivation, which uses mechanical action to change the condition of the surface layer and the ground of the cultivation. The working depth is generally 12 to 14 cm, often using notch 耙, heavy disc harrow, etc. And cockroaches instead of ploughing. Specific operations include shovel, shovel (grinding), suppression, etc., followed by sowing. The aim is to create a good germinating and growing soil environment for crop seeds. The technical requirement for spring ploughing is to timely smash the ground, mix the soil layer, crush the clods, and supplement the shovel, and arrange the soil into the plucked seed bed and root bed to prepare for planting. At the same time, the base fertilizer is thrown into the soil by a disc harrow or a rotary tiller. The role of farming before planting has won the recognition of farmers. The actions of the farmer's measures such as sputum, sputum and repression have been vividly described in terms of drought resistance and conservation: “top ridge, water storage and conservation”; “intensive cultivation, no rain, no fear” "Before the broadcast, you can save the game. The role of soil tillage is multi-faceted. First, the ground is created by sputum, pressure and other measures to create good environmental conditions for the seed to absorb water and germinate. Second, improve the structure of the plough layer and adjust the proportion of solid, gas and liquid three-phase in the soil, so that the soil ventilation, water and fertility conditions reach the best state at the time of sowing. Third, tillage can reduce root growth resistance and apply organic fertilizers and compound fertilizers to suitable sites. Fourth, the land preparation can achieve the purpose of water storage and protection, which not only accepts rainwater but also reduces evaporation, runoff and leakage. As the farmer said: "There is nothing to do with the emptiness of the top, and the topsoil seals against evaporation."

The soil tillage before spring sowing is best carried out on the basis of ploughing in autumn, so that the rain and snow in autumn and winter will be stored more in the soil, which is beneficial to the drought resistance of spring crops. However, most of the current situation is that the straw remains in the farmland in the sorghum state after the autumn harvest. Before planting, for these plots that have not been cultivated in autumn, we must first clean up the corn residue, cut the embedding first, and then fertilize and level. Another important role of pre-planting cultivation is to apply fertilizer. Regardless of the application of organic fertilizer or chemical fertilizer, the fertilizer should be applied to a certain depth in combination with farming. Because the nitrogen fertilizer is applied to the surface, it will volatilize and lose, and the applied shallow is too close to the seed and easy to burn; the phosphate fertilizer is too shallow or applied to the surface and cannot move downward, although the seedling stage can be used for the upper and later roots to grow downward. Not enough, these will result in low fertilizer utilization, waste of fertilizer costs, and the production will not reach the target. The reasonable depth of fertilization can only be achieved by means of farming before sowing.

In short, rational farming is not only to ensure the quality of sowing, but also to lay a good foundation for the harvest of the year, but also to improve soil quality, fertilize the soil and improve fertilizer utilization.

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